Subjective and objective signs of pregnancy

Early pregnancy diagnostics

Early pregnancy is diagnosed by a combination of signs, data of gyne­cologic examination, instrument and laboratory methods of investi­gation.

Pregnancy signs are divided into three groups.

1. Doubtful signs are various subjective sensations and objec­

tively detected changes in the organism except for the changes in the

internal genital organs:

a) subjective phenomena — nausea, vomiting, loss or increase oi appetite, gustatory caprices (addiction to salty or sour food, chalk, etc.), changes of olfactory sensations (aversion to the smell of meat products, tobacco smoke, etc.), slight fatigability, sleepiness;

b) objective phenomena — pigmentation of the face skin, white line, external genital organs, increased pigmentation of the nipples and the skin around them.

2. Probable signs are objective signs detected in the genital or­

gans, mammary glands, and also with the help of immune response to

pregnancy. These are characteristic of pregnancy, though sometimes

may arise because of other reasons. The signs include cessation of

menstruation at the childbearing age, mammary glands enlargement,

and nipple discharge of milk or colostrum.

Probable signs also include gynecological examination data: in­spection of the external genital organs, examination of the neck of uterus with the help of specula, bimanual gynecological examination. Softening and cyanosis of the vestibule of vagina, vagina itself, and the neck of uterus may be observed; enlargement and softening of the uterus, change in its form; increase of the contractile capacity of uter­us (short-term hardening of the softened uterus).

During the examination of the gravid uterus the most important signs are the following:

a) the Genter’s sign: vaginal examination during early pregnancy shows a cristate protuberance on the anterior surface of uterus, directly on its midline; the protuberance does not spread either to the fundus, or its posterior surface, or the neck;

b) the Hegar’s sign: vaginal examination shows softening in the region of isthmus, as a result the fingers of the external and internal hands easily meet in this place. The neck is felt as a more dense body ;

c) the Piskachek’s sign: vaginal examination shows that the con­tours of the fundus of uterus and the regions of its angles appear to be irregular. The angle corresponding to the place of egg implantation protrudes much more than the opposite one. The whole uterus ap­pears to be asymmetric

d) the Snegirev’s sign: during vaginal examination the gravid uter­us begins contracting under the fingers and becomes denser as a result of mechanical irritation.

Probable signs include immune responses to pregnancy, which are based on HCG detection in the urine or blood plasma. HCG is pro­duced by the trophoblast, then by the chorion, placenta. This hor­mone consists of alpha- and beta-subunits. Production begins from the 7 th —8 th day after fertilization, therefore laboratory diagnostics is possible after this term. Since the method has a threshold of sensitivi­ty, one should take morning urine for the investigation — it has the highest concentration of the hormone. Detection of beta-HCG in the plasma is more reliable. It should be emphasized that though HCG is produced by trophoblast, the reaction is referred to probable signs, because at such pathological state as chorioepithelioma positive reac­tions to HCG are also observed. Besides, after abortion reactions re­main positive during 7—10 days, and at pathological states (tropho­blast diseases) — during 2—4 months. The lower threshold of sensi­tivity of the method is 5 IU/L.

3. True signs of pregnancy are conclusive proofs of pregnancy in the examined woman. All the signs of this group are objective and originate from the fetus. They include the signs shown by intravagi-nal ultrasound investigation. Other true signs reveal beginning from the 20 th week of pregnancy and do not belong to the signs of early pregnancy; they are: fetal movement detected manually or during auscultation (not the movement felt by the pregnant woman); aus­cultation of fetal heart tones; palpation of fetal parts (the head, legs, buttocks, arms); detecting fetal heartbeats by means of cardiotoco-graphy. It should be noted that application of the color impulsive Doppler is forbidden till the end of the crucial period of organogene­sis. This is connected with the fact that the usage of modern Doppler technologies at transvaginal echographies if pregnancy term is less than 10 weeks has a potential threat of teratogenic thermal effect as a result of embryo heating.

Currently the standard of early pregnancy diagnostics is the com­bination of two methods:

a). detecting beta-HCG in the urine or blood plasma;

b). transvaginal ultrasound investigation.

The uterus dimensions during the first 3 months of pregnancy, when it is still in the small pelvis cavity, are detected by means of bi­manual gynecological examination, further at abdominal palpation — by the height of uterine fundus standing.

The accuracy of pregnancy term determination depends on the early visit of the woman to the antenatal clinic. It is recommended to conduct the primary examination of the woman by two specialists-obstetricians. Taking into account the difficulty of detecting the term of fertilization, pregnancy is diagnosed with a week interval (for ex­ample: pregnancy of 8—9 weeks). Pregnancy term is detected more reliably on the basis of measuring the parameters of the embryo and fetus by the method of ultrasound investigation.

Late pregnancy diagnostics

The methods of late pregnancy investigation include: general exami­nation of the pregnant or parturient woman, external measuring of the uterus and pelvis of the woman, external and internal obstetric examination; auscultation of fetal heartbeats, auxiliary instrument and apparatus methods of investigating the fetal condition (see the chapter Fetal Condition Imaging and Assessment).

Anamnestic data — pregnancy term calculation in weeks with the help of the pregnancy table from the date of the last menstruation and from the date of the first fetal movement (in para I the first fetal movement is usually felt beginning from 20 weeks of pregnancy, in para II — from 18 weeks). To calculate the term of delivery by the date of the last menstruation one has to count 3 months off it and add 7 days to the obtained date.

Results of objective examination — the height of uterine fundus standing over the womb at measuring with a measuring tape in rela­tion to a standard gravidogram, external obstetric examination (the Leopold’s maneuver), auscultation of fetal heartbeats (beginning from 20 weeks), the data of ultrasound fetometry.

Fetus Attitude in the Uterine Cavity (fetus position, the type of position, presentation)

Attitude of fetus is the relation of small fetal parts and head to the body. At normal attitude the spine is bent to the abdominal surface, the head is pulled to the chest, the arms are bent in the elbow joints and folded on the chest, the legs are bent in the knee and hip joints, pulled to the stomach.

Fetal lie is the relation of the longitudinal axis of fetus to the longi­tudinal axis of uterus. There are differentiated the following fetal lies:

— longitudinal — the longitudinal axis of fetus and the longitudi­nal axis of uterus coincide;

— transversal — the longitudinal axis of fetus crosses the longitu­dinal axis of uterus;

oblique — the longitudinal axis of fetus crosses the longitudi­nal axis of uterus at a sharp angle.

Fetus position is the relation of the fetal back to the right and left sides of uterus. Two positions are differentiated:

the first — the fetal back is turned to the left;

the second — the fetal back is turned to the right.

At transversal and oblique lie the position is detected by head lo­cation: the head is on the left of the maternal stomach midline — the first position, on the right — the second.

The type of position relation of the fetal back to the anterior or posterior uterine wall. There are two types:

anterior — the fetal back is turned to the front;

— posterior — the fetal back is turned backwards.

Presentation is the relation of a big fetal part (the head or pelvis) to the inlet of small pelvis. There are differentiated cephalic and pel­vic presentations.

A presenting part is the part of fetus, which is located closer to the inlet and is the first to go through the maternal passages. At the bent fetal head the most low located part is the occiput. Such presentation is called vertex and is observed most often.

Considerably less frequently the head is unbent. Depending on the level of unbending the presenting part may be the crown (sincipi­tal presentation), forehead (brow presentation), or face (face presen­tation).

At pelvic presentation the most low located part might be the but­tocks (breech presentation) or feet (foot presentation).

The major segment of fetal head is understood as the largest cir­cumference of the head, with which it goes through the planes of small pelvis depending on its fitting. At vertex presentation, when the head is fitted into the pelvis in bent position, the largest circumfer­ence is the one corresponding to the circumference of the small oblique size. At extended fitting of the head the major segment will be different (depending on the degree of deflexion).

The minor segment of fetal head is considered by convention the part of the head smaller than the major segment, with which the head goes through the smaller pelvis planes.


The first maneuver. The purpose is to detect the standing of the fundus of uterus and the part of fetus located close to the fundus of uterus. To do this, the doctor stands on the right of the pregnant woman, facing her, puts both palms on the fundus of uterus, detects the height of its standing over the womb and the part of fetus located close to the fundus of uterus.

The second maneuver. The purpose is to detect the position and position type of the fetus. Both palms are removed from the fundus of uterus and in turn palpate the parts of fetus directed to the lateral uterine walls. The back and small parts of fetus are found. At irregular position the head is adjacent to one of the lateral uterine walls.

The third maneuver. The purpose is to detect the character of the presenting part of fetus (presentation). With one hand, usually the right one, which is lying slightly above the pubis, the presenting part of fetus is covered, after what cautious movements are made with this hand to the right and to the left. At cephalic presentation a dense, spheric part is detected, which has well-defined contours. If the fetal head is not yet fitted into the area of brim, it easily moves between the thumb and the rest of fingers. At pelvic presentation a volumi­nous soft part is detected, it is not spheric and can not move.

The fourth maneuver. The purpose is to detect the level of pre­senting part standing (of the head in particular) relative to the area of brim and to the degree of its fitting. The doctor stands on the left, with the face to the lower extremities of the pregnant woman, puts both hands with palms down on the lateral parts of the lower uterine segment and palpates accessible parts of the presenting part of fetus, trying to get with the fingertips between the pre­senting part and lateral parts of the area of brim.


Abdomen circumference (AC) is measured with ameasuring tape, which goes through the navel in front and through the middle of lum­bar area from behind.

The height of uterine fundus standing (HUFS) is measured with a measuring tape from the upper margin of symphysis to the most pro­truding point of the fundus of uterus. The results of HUFS measuring are compared with a standard gravidogram (normally by the 30 lh week of pregnancy HUFS increase makes 0.7—1.9 cm a week; at 30—36 weeks — 0.6—1.2 cm a week; at 36 and more — 0.1—0.4 cm. If case monitoring shows lagging of dimensions by 2 cm or absence of increase during 2—3 weeks, it gives ground to suspect fetal growth inhibition).


The foreseeable fetal body weight (FBW) is approximately calcu­lated by the following formula:

FBW = AC x HUFS. More reliably fetal body weight is estimated by ultrasonic fetometry.

Food poisoning during pregnancy

Food poisoning – a state of the body caused by the intake of low-quality or poisonous food.The most common foodborne diseases.They are caused by the ingestion of food contaminated by various microorganisms and their toxins proizvedimymi.

Poisoning toxins is known as microbial toxicosis.The most striking examples are the staphylococcal toxicosis and botulism.

non-microbial food poisoning associated with poisoning poisonous plants and animal tissues, chemicals (pesticides, salts of heavy metals).

When pregnancy food poisoning can be dangerous not only for women but also for the unborn child.

Food poisoning during pregnancy: symptoms

first signs of poisoning can occur within two hours after consuming low-quality food, an average of 6-12 hours, and can and in two days.

Common symptoms of food poisoning:

With the passage of ingested through the digestive tract may appear sharp abdominal pain, frequent diarrhea, sometimes with blood.In some specific cases of poisoning can join the characteristic symptoms, such as botulism – double vision, swallowing disorder.

Danger of food poisoning during pregnancy

Food poisoning during pregnancy of any severity or even suspected it is an indication for the direction of a pregnant woman to the hospital.The danger is that by vomiting and loose stools a woman loses a lot of fluids and minerals.Thickening of blood occurs, which leads to increased risk tromboorbrazovaniya.the blood system of a pregnant woman, and so is in a state of increased clotting.This is necessary to protect against a possible hemorrhage.Consequently, the risk of thrombosis is increased by half.

If you have mikrotromboza in the vessels of the placenta and its possible detachment of fetal death.Increases in serum concentrations of the hormone oxytocin, which increases the tone of the uterus, which can also lead to miscarriage.

with vomiting and loose stools a mother loses a child needed vitamins and minerals, not getting from food proteins, which serve as building blocks for the fetus.

Microorganisms usually do not enter the blood to pass through the placenta barrier for food poisoning.So do not be afraid of infection of the fetus.But some toxins and chemicals can get into the child’s body and accumulate there.In the early stages of pregnancy may experience disturbances incompatible with life and death of the fetus.In late – disrupted activity of internal organs of the child to slow down his development as in utero and after birth.

Food poisoning during pregnancy: treatment

necessary as quickly as possible to call a doctor.At the hospital, pregnant women will appoint a dropper to correct dehydration and excretion of toxins from the body.

independently induce vomiting and stomach wash is dangerous, as it can cause premature labor.It is advisable to wait until he gets rid of the stomach of poor-quality food.After vomiting should drink before elimination of dry mouth.Drink better special salt solutions, but it is possible and boiled water.After the disappearance of symptoms should compensate the loss of vitamins and trace elements.

Prevention of food poisoning during pregnancy

should prevent occurrence of poisoning in planning pregnancy and pregnant women.You should always wash their hands before eating, avoid the use of substandard and expired products:

  • unpasteurized milk;
  • raw eggs;
  • soft cheeses (such as Brie);
  • neprozharennoe or dried meat;
  • pastries and cakes with cream;
  • shellfish.

Signs of pregnancy

Physical symptoms of pregnancy vary. Of the symptoms listed, not all will occur for every woman, and individuals may well experience different symptoms during different pregnancies. The following is a list of the most common symptoms.

Breasts may feel swollen, sore, or tender.

Pregnancy sickness may cause nausea and vomiting. It is also known as morning sickness, although it may occur at any time of the day or night.

The sense of smell may be heightened.

Fatigue is a common symptom in early pregnancy. It results from increased progesterone and may be compounded by increased blood volume, which can result in lower blood pressure and lower blood sugar.

Dizziness and fainting may be experienced, particularly after standing up quickly. These symptoms are caused by lower blood pressure and lower blood sugar.

Frequent mild headaches may occur, caused by increased blood circulation

Constipation is a common symptom caused by increased progesterone, which slows the activity of the large intestine.

Increased urination is caused by pressure of the growing uterus against the urinary bladder.

Emotional lability, including dysphoria, crying spells, and mood swings, may be experienced. These mood changes are triggered by the effect of pregnancy hormones on mood regulation in the brain.

Other symptoms may be experienced specifically during the later stages, such as:

Lower backache. Balance and ease of walking may be affected.

Some women report hair loss, others have more body or “facial” hair.

Sensitivity in teeth, higher risk for gum disease may occur.

Some women during pregnancy experience mental disturbances more severe than typical mood swings. Psychological stress during pregnancy is associated with an increase in other pregnancy symptoms.

Pregnancy is the term used to describe when a woman has a growing fetus inside of her. Human pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, or just more than 9 months. Pregnancy is typically divided into three periods, or trimesters, each of about three months. The first 3 months of fetal development are the most important. During this time, all the major organs in the body are formed. The eyes and heart have begun to form. At the end of the sixth week the brain becomes more noticeable, and arm and leg buds begin to appear. By the seventh week, the chest and abdomen are fully formed and the lungs are beginning to develop. During the second trimester the fetus grows and the organs formed during the previous weeks mature.At 13 weeks the fetus can kick and move its toes. The mouth can open and close. The fetus is capable of bending its arms and a fist. Fine hair covers the entire body. The first eyelashes and eyebrows begin to appear. During the third trimester the infant’s eyes are open. Most of the body hair is gone, although the shoulders and arms may still have a light covering.


fertilization [“fq:tIlaI’zeIS(q)n] запліднення

germinal [‘Gq:mIn(q)l] зародковий, гермінальний

embryo [’embrIqu] зародок, ембріон

neonate [nIo’neIt] дитина у віці до одного місяця, новонароджений

adolescent [“xdqu’lesnt] підлітковий

puberty [‘pjubqtI] статева зрілість

accomplish [qk’OmplIS] вчиняти, досягати

subsequent [‘sAbsIkwqnt] наступний

maturation [“mqtjuq’reIS(q)n] розвиток

myelin sheath [‘maIqlIn’SIT] мієлінова оболонка

prone [prqun] що лежить ниць

exercise [‘eksqsaIz] вправляти

aimlessly [‘eImlIslI] без мети, безглуздо

voluntary [‘vOlqnt(q)rI] довільний

thumb [TAm] великий палець (руки)

suck [sAk] смоктання

push-up [‘puS ‘Ap] віджимання

raise [reIz] піднімати

grasp [gra:sp] хапати, затискати; захоплювати

erect [I’rekt] прямо, вертикально, прямовисно

reach for [rI:C] діставати, тягнутися

roll over [rqul] перекочувати(ся); перевертати(ся)

Первые признаки беременности

Наступление беременности в жизни большинства женщин является самым главным и долгожданным событием. Многие беременность планируют, поэтому с нетерпением ждут, когда наступят первые проявления зарождения новой жизни.

Классификация признаков беременности

1. Субъективные (предположительные). К ним относятся самые первые признаки до задержки. Они неодинаковые и могут не проявляться все сразу, потому что это сугубо индивидуальные ощущения самой женщины. Они также могут быть признаками не только беременности, но и других состояний и заболеваний.

2. Объективные (вероятные). Определяются при осмотре женщины врачом-гинекологом уже через несколько недель после задержки. Также они могут указывать на некоторые гинекологические заболевания.

3. Достоверные (несомненные). Это абсолютные признаки беременности. К ним относятся определяющееся на УЗИ (с 4-6 недели беременности) имплантированное плодное яйцо, наличие сердцебиения, а также анализ крови на ХГЧ.

Субъективные признаки беременности

Возникают эти первые признаки до месячных и могут присутствовать до 12-16 недель беременности. Какие-либо изменения женщина может почувствовать примерно через неделю после момента зачатия.

– имплантационное кровотечение – это незначительные кровянистые выделения, происходящие через несколько недель после зачатия в результате внедрения эмбриона в стенку матки, бывает не всегда;

– повышенная чувствительность и увеличение груди – часто встречающийся признак, наблюдается через 7-10 дней после оплодотворения, при котором незначительные прикосновения могут быть очень болезненны, возможно потемнение ареол сосков;

– апатия и повышенная утомляемость также появляются в течение 1-2 недель после зачатия в результате влияния гормональной перестройки в организме, направленной на сохранение беременности;

– токсикоз и его симптомы – тошнота, рвота, усиленное слюноотделение, повышенная чувствительность к запахам и непереносимость определенных продуктов питания тоже появляются довольно рано и зависят от индивидуальных особенностей организма женщины;

– учащенное безболезненное мочеиспускание возникает в результате давления растущей матки с эмбрионом на мочевой пузырь- помните, что болезненное мочеиспускание может быть симптомом цистита;

– чувство недомогания – многие женщины ощущают себя заболевшими, потому что температура тела поднимается до 37-37,3 оС, появляются слабость, головная боль;

– кишечные расстройства и вздутие живота объясняются тем, что под влиянием гормонов замедляется перистальтика кишечника;

– снижение артериального давления может привести к головокружению, слабости и даже обморокам, особенно в душных помещениях;

– имплантационное западание является веским признаком для тех, кто измеряет базальную (ректальную) температуру, характеризуется резким однодневным снижением этой температуры с последующим повышением в течение нескольких недель;

– ощущение тяжести в области таза наблюдается в результате увеличения матки и повышения притока крови к малому тазу;

– усиление влагалищной секреции также происходит под влиянием изменения гормонального фона и направлено на формирование слизистой пробки в шейке матки, защищающей плод от возможных инфекций.

Все вышеперечисленные первые признаки до задержки весьма спорны, и единственным способом определить в это время наверняка беременны вы или нет, является анализ на ХГЧ. Он проводится не ранее, чем через 7-10 дней после предполагаемого зачатия.

Pregnancy in the lives of most women is the most important and long-awaited event. Many are planning a pregnancy, so look forward to when it's the first manifestation of new life.

Classification of signs of pregnancy

1. Subjective (tentative). These include the very first signs up delay. They are not the same and may not appear all at once, because it is a purely individual sensations of the woman. They may also be signs of pregnancy not only, but also other conditions and diseases.

2. Objective (probable). Are defined when viewed from a woman gynecologist after a few weeks of delay. They can also indicate some gynecological disorders.

3. Credible (undoubted). This is the absolute signs of pregnancy. They are determined on the US (4-6 weeks of pregnancy) implanted fertilized egg, the presence of heart, as well as a blood test for hCG.

Subjective symptoms of pregnancy

There are the first signs up monthly and can be present up to 12-16 weeks of pregnancy. Any changes a woman can feel about a week after conception.

– Implantation bleeding – a minor spotting, occurring within a few weeks after conception as a result of embryo implantation in the uterine wall, is not always;

– Hypersensitivity and breast augmentation – common symptoms observed in 7-10 days after fertilization at which minor touch can be very painful, possibly darkening areolas nipples;

– apathy and fatigue also appear within 1-2 weeks after conception as a result of the influence of hormonal changes in the body aimed at maintaining pregnancy;

– toxicosis and its symptoms – nausea, vomiting, increased salivation, increased sensitivity to smells and intolerance to certain foods, too, appear quite early, depending on the individual woman;

– rapid painless urination occurs as a result of the growing pressure from the uterus on the urinary bubble embryo remember that painful urination can be a symptom of cystitis;

– feeling of malaise – many women feel sick because the body temperature rises to 37-37,3 ? C, there are weakness, headache;

– intestinal disorders and bloating due to the fact that under the influence of hormones slows intestinal peristalsis;

– lowering blood pressure can lead to dizziness, weakness and even fainting, especially in stuffy rooms;

– ceasing implantation is a strong sign for those who measure the basal (rectal) temperature, characterized by a sharp one-day decline this temperature with a consequent increase in a few weeks;

– a feeling of heaviness in the pelvic region is observed as a result of the increase of the uterus and increase blood flow to the small pelvis;

– strengthening the vaginal secretion also is influenced by hormonal changes and is aimed at the formation of mucus plug in the cervix which protects the fetus against possible infections.

All of the above signs of a delay to the highly controversial, and the only way to determine for sure at this time whether or not you are pregnant is a test for hCG. He held no earlier than 7-10 days after the alleged conception.

Настання вагітності в житті більшості жінок є найголовнішим і довгоочікуваною подією. Багато вагітність планують, тому з нетерпінням чекають, коли настануть перші прояви зародження нового життя.

Класифікація ознак вагітності

1. Суб'єктивні (приблизні). До них відносяться найперші ознаки до затримки. Вони неоднакові і можуть не проявлятися все відразу, тому що це суто індивідуальні відчуття самої жінки. Вони також можуть бути ознаками не тільки вагітності, але і інших станів і захворювань.

2. Об'єктивні (ймовірні). Визначаються при огляді жінки лікарем-гінекологом вже через кілька тижнів після затримки. Також вони можуть вказувати на деякі гінекологічні захворювання.

3. Достовірні (безсумнівні). Це абсолютні ознаки вагітності. До них відносяться определяющееся на УЗД (з 4-6 тижня вагітності) імплантований плодове яйце, наявність серцебиття, а також аналіз крові на ХГЧ.

Суб'єктивні ознаки вагітності

Виникають ці перші ознаки до місячних і можуть бути присутніми до 12-16 тижнів вагітності. Будь-які зміни жінка може відчути приблизно через тиждень після моменту зачаття.

– кровотеча імплантації – це незначні кров'янисті виділення, що відбуваються через кілька тижнів після зачаття в результаті впровадження ембріона в стінку матки, буває не завжди;

– підвищена чутливість і збільшення грудей – часто зустрічається ознака, спостерігається через 7-10 днів після запліднення, при якому незначні дотику можуть бути дуже болючі, можливе потемніння ареол сосків;

– апатія і підвищена стомлюваність також з'являються протягом 1-2 тижнів після зачаття в результаті впливу гормональної перебудови в організмі, спрямованої на збереження вагітності;

– токсикоз і його симптоми – нудота, блювота, посилене слиновиділення, підвищена чутливість до запахів і непереносимість певних продуктів харчування теж з'являються досить рано і залежать від індивідуальних особливостей організму жінки;

– прискорене безболісне сечовипускання виникає в результаті тиску зростаючої матки з ембріоном на сечовий пузирь- пам'ятайте, що хворобливе сечовипускання може бути симптомом циститу;

– почуття нездужання – багато жінок відчувають себе хворими, тому що температура тіла піднімається до 37-37,3 ° С, з'являються слабкість, головний біль;

– кишкові розлади і здуття живота пояснюються тим, що під впливом гормонів сповільнюється перистальтика кишечника;

– зниження артеріального тиску може призвести до запаморочення, слабкість і навіть непритомності, особливо в задушливих приміщеннях;

– імплантації западання є вагомим ознакою для тих, хто вимірює базальну (ректальну) температуру, характеризується різким одноденним зниженням цієї температури з подальшим підвищенням протягом декількох тижнів;

– відчуття тяжкості в області таза спостерігається в результаті збільшення матки і підвищення припливу крові до малого тазу;

– посилення вагінальної секреції також відбувається під впливом зміни гормонального фону і направлено на формування слизової пробки в шийці матки, що захищає плід від можливих інфекцій.

Всі перераховані вище перші ознаки до затримки досить спірні, і єдиним способом визначити в цей час напевно вагітні ви чи ні, є аналіз на ХГЧ. Він проводиться не раніше, ніж через 7-10 днів після передбачуваного зачаття.

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