Fresh red blood during pregnancy

Rectal Bleeding During Pregnancy

11.03.2017 Andrew Johns 0 Popular

Pregnancy and Rectal Bleeding

Bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal divisions (esophagus, stomach and small intestine) can manifest itself through the rectum with the loss of blood of dark red color due to its quick passage, but usually melena is observed. Bleeding from the rectum is accompanied by severe/sudden blood loss. Patients with chronic blood loss are admitted with anemia of iron deficiency.

Causes of Rectal Bleeding During Pregnancy

  • Hemorrhoids;
  • Anal fissure;
  • Rectal solitary ulcer syndrome (mucosal prolapse).
  • Inflammatory bowel disease;
  • Adenomatous polyps;
  • Cancer;
  • Arteriovenous malformations of Meckel Diverticulum.

Medical History and Examination of Rectal Bleeding During Pregnancy

A detailed medical history may give a clue to the root cause of colorectal bleeding. Discharge of bright red blood apart from the faeces may suspect an anorectal cause. Diarrhea and mucus, with dark blood, lead to suspect colitis or swelling. Changes in bowel function in the disease – constipation and diarrhea with intestinal discomfort — may suspect a cancer. Defecation urgency, acute bleeding and abdominal pain are more common for colitis. Examination of rectum and proctosigmoidoscopy help in the diagnosis of anorectal disease.

Colonoscopy, though hardly feasible in case of bleeding, at least, identifies the affected segment. Angiography of mesentery, if it is possible to perform, helps to determine the diagnosis. The examination of the surgeon is required when a women is admitted with acute rectal bleeding and hemodynamic disorders during emergency therapy. If the cause is not found in the lower divisions, endoscopic examination of the upper gastrointestinal divisions is recommended.

Anorectal Diseases

Hemorrhoids and anorectal fissures are the most common anorectal disorders during pregnancy, they cause considerable inconvenience. The real incidence of these diseases is unknown. During pregnancy, they are not diagnosed and not treated until delivery.


Hemorrhoids during pregnancy occurs due to the increase in the volume of circulating blood, increasing venous stagnation caused by squeezing the upper rectal veins of the pregnant by the uterus, as well as the relaxing effect of progesterone on the smooth muscles of the walls of veins. Clinical symptoms of hemorrhoids are bleeding, loss of nodes, mucous discharge, itching and discomfort in the rectum. The diagnosis is set by simply inspecting the anus. During pregnancy sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy are safe.

Treatment during pregnancy is mainly aimed at relieving the symptoms, especially the pain. Conservative treatment is a diet change, increase of fluid intake, medications, softening the feces, and analgesics. Most women have symptoms disappeared shortly after delivery. Therefore the final treatment is postponed until the postpartum period.

The ligation of hemorrhoids with rubber rings can be safely performed at pregnant women with internal hemorrhoids. The hemorrhoidectomy is performed with a significant loss of nodes or accompanying ulceration, strong bleeding, fissure, anal fistula and the absence of the effect of conservative treatment.

Anal Fissure

Anal fissure is a painful condition that occurs at a large part of the population. It usually occurs when solid faeces are passing through which damage and violate the integrity of the epithelium of the anus. Clinical symptoms are pain during defecation with blood or wiping the anus. At pregnant women the disease is especially prevalent due to frequent constipation. The increased production of progesterone during pregnancy leads to relaxation of smooth muscles and slowing of intestinal passage. Contributing factor is preventive and curative use of iron supplementation during pregnancy with constipating effect.

The choice of treatment method for optimal clinical results and causing the patient the least pain and inconvenience is always a difficult task for surgeons. Acute fissures are healed exceptionally by conservative methods, but for chronic fissures to reduce spasm of sphincter certain manipulations or surgical intervention are required.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Sometimes inflammatory bowel disease first manifests itself during pregnancy. Recurrence of Crohn's disease during pregnancy is usually manifested in the first trimester. A large part of patients regularly take some drugs.

Many patients with ulcerative colitis and surgical treatment with the anastomosis between the ileum and rectum in medical history are pregnant. Long-term outcomes of pregnancy and natural childbirth at such patients are good.

Colorectal Cancer

Treatment of colorectal cancer is performed with compliance with generally accepted principles. With indications, primary surgical treatment is always performed. In the later stages of pregnancy it is preferred to postpone the surgery until the fetal gestation and delivery. Most authors recommend to perform the primary surgical treatment of colon cancer in the first half of pregnancy because the deferral treatment before birth can lead to the spread of the tumor. Rectal cancer during pregnancy is treated somewhat differently than colon cancer. During the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, at patients wishing to carry the pregnancy, primary resection and chemotherapy are performed after delivery. If the patient chooses abortion, then after abortion she is treated as non-pregnant.

During pregnancy safe and timely surgical treatment of many diseases of the colon allows to save the life of the fetus and fertility of the woman. In benign diseases the possibility of conservative treatment is wider. For patients with malignant tumor the risk of delay of surgical treatment, chemotherapy or radiotherapy is unknown. It should be found out whether a woman plans to have more children. A multidisciplinary approach with the close interaction of obstetrician-gynecologist, surgeon, oncologist, pediatrician and neonatologist is recommended.

Prevention of Rectal Bleeding

As we have already said, the most common cause of the fissure and hemorrhoid is constipation, therefore tuning the digestive system is the first step to prevent the blood from the rectum during pregnancy.

Here are a couple of tips on how you can prevent or relieve constipation:

  • Eat daily fiber-rich foods, such as cereals, wholemeal bread, fresh fruit and vegetables. For breakfast make yourself the grain porridge and add a couple of tablespoons of raw wheat bran.
  • Drink plenty of water, you need to drink at least 8-10 glasses a day. A glass of fruit juice every day, especially plum juice, can also be helpful.
  • Regularly engage in physical exercise. Walking, swimming and yoga will not only relieve constipation but also will improve your health.
  • Empty the bowels in time. Never put off visiting the toilet, if you feel the urge to defecate.
  • If you are taking iron supplements, they may be causing your constipation. Talk with your doctor-maybe ordinary vitamins for pregnant women will be enough, or the doctor will prescribe you a safe laxative.
  • Is It Safe To Eat Pineapple During Pregnancy?

    During pregnancy, women avoid eating certain foods such as pineapple and papaya as they fear that the heat generated by these fruits could lead to a miscarriage. But are such fears backed by any scientific research? MomJunction helps you understand how safe it is to have pineapple during pregnancy.

    Is Pineapple Safe To Eat During Pregnancy?

    Yes, it is safe to include pineapple in your diet (1). Eating one to two cups a week is safe and yields positive health effects for you and your baby. Overeating, like having seven to ten cups a week, may cause problems. It may increase bromelain amount in the body that could put you at risk of miscarriage. Instead, you can have canned pineapples or pineapple juice as bromelain is removed in the canning process (2).

    Benefits Of Pineapple For Pregnant Women:

    Pineapple contains abundant amounts of vitamins and minerals, which keep you healthy during pregnancy. They have low saturated fats and high dietary fiber, thus having high nutritional value.

    1. Vitamin C:

    a. Boosts Immunity: Pineapples contain high amounts of vitamin C, the water soluble antioxidants which fight against the cell impairment that takes place inside your body, and help boost immunity during pregnancy.

    b. Produces Collagen: One cup of pineapple offers nearly 79 milligrams of vitamin C, which promotes collagen production. Collagen is responsible for the growth of your baby’s skin, cartilage, bones, and tendons. One single cup nearly offers the daily requirement, i.e., 80 – 85 milligrams of vitamin C during pregnancy (3).

    2. Manganese:

    The mineral manganese is an essential enzyme for promoting bone development, strong and healthy bones and prevention of osteoporosis.

    3. Vitamin B1:

    Vitamin B1 or thiamine is useful for proper muscle functioning and healthy nervous system and heart.

    4. Vitamin B6:

    Vitamin B6 or pyridoxine is responsible for preparing antibodies and producing energy. It also offers a great relief from morning sickness. Deficiency of vitamin B6 leads to anemia, and pineapple helps red blood cell formation as it contains good amounts of this vitamin.

    Pineapple also contains trace amounts of copper, which helps in the production of red blood cells and formation of baby’s heart.

    6. Dietary Fiber:

    A high source of fiber, it effectively eases constipation, which is a common complaint in the early stages of pregnancy.

    7. Iron And Folic Acid:

    A fresh pineapple can offer sufficient amounts of iron, essential for red blood cell production and folic acid, helpful in preventing some birth defects (4).

    8. Bromelain:

    The bromelain in pineapples helps combat the bacteria that resides in the gut and repairs the gastro-intestinal tract.

    9. Diuretic Property:

    Pineapple’s diuretic effect helps in removing excess liquids from the body. This prevents swelling, which is a common symptom during pregnancy.

    10. Treats Varicose Veins:

    Most pregnant women develop varicose veins during pregnancy. Varicose veins in legs widen, bulge, and twist, causing pain. Bromelain in pineapple lessens the formation of fibrous deposits on varicose veins and reduces discomfort.

    11. Enhances Mood:

    The unique aroma and taste of the fruit improves mood and restores emotional strength. It is a healthy and delicious fruit that helps you to get rid of anxiety, depression, and obsessive thoughts.

    12. Lowers Blood Pressure:

    You are likely to have high blood pressure during pregnancy. Bromelain in pineapple helps in thinning the blood and thus lowering blood pressure. It also prevents the formation of blood clots.

    Risks Of Eating Pineapple While You Are Pregnant:

    1. Heartburn Or Reflux:

    If you have a sensitive stomach and a weak digestive system, avoid pineapple. The acids present in the fruit could lead to heartburn or reflux.

    2. Miscarriage:

    According to Maternal-Child Health – Interdisciplinary Aspects Within the Perspective of Global Health book, excess pineapple will increase bromelain content in the body, which affects the cervix, causing miscarriage or premature labor. It also causes vomiting, skin rash, and uterine contractions in your first trimester.

    3. High Sugars:

    If you are suffering from gestational diabetes, then pineapple may not be the correct food as its high sugar levels will aggravate your condition.

    4. Overweight:

    If you are overweight, you should avoid consuming pineapple due to its high-calorie content.

    5. Diarrhea:

    Too much of pineapple can increase bromelain, leading to diarrhea.

    6. Tenderness:

    Excessive consumption of pineapple can cause tenderness or swelling on the tongue, inner cheeks and lips. These do fade away in a while.

    It is best to avoid pineapple if you are suffering from peptic ulcer disease, gastritis, risk of miscarriage, bad coagulability of blood, and low blood pressure.

    If you are eating pineapple for the first time during pregnancy, you may experience certain allergic symptoms. Check with your doctor if you happen to get:

    • Skin reactions
    • Swelling or itching in the mouth
    • A runny nose or congestion
    • Asthma

    These reactions are similar to the allergic reactions of latex or pollen and occur within minutes of pineapple consumption.

    Myths About Pineapple During Pregnancy:

    Just like saffron, pineapple has been labeled as a ‘hot food’ and unsafe during pregnancy. Some people have a wrong notion that it induces natural labor. However, there is no scientific evidence to support this claim. It should be consumed in excessive quantities to induce labor.

    How Much Pineapple Can A Pregnant Woman Have?

    • First trimester: It is better not to include it at all in the first trimester.
    • Second trimester: It can be included in your diet in small amounts. You can have about 50gm to 100gm two to three times in a week.
    • Third trimester: You can include small portions of the fruit every day. You can take about 250gm of pineapple in one go. Again, you should monitor the portion size or else it may increase the chances of uterine contractions.

    How To Choose A Pineapple?

    Pineapple offers maximum benefits if they are fresh and ripe. These simple ways will help you in selecting the best fruit for consumption.

    • Ripe pineapple has smooth yellow-brown hue.
    • The rind should be soft and elastic.
    • Leaves at the tail of the fruit should be green. Slightly faded leaves are fine but do not take the ones with dry leaves.
    • When you pat on the fruit, it should give a strong sound. The mature ones will give a dull sound.
    • Fresh and ripe fruits give a pleasant smell.

    How To Include Pineapple In Your Pregnancy Diet?

    • One cup of fresh pineapple slices is a simple and healthy way to add the fruit to your diet.
    • Add diced pineapple to grilled pork chops for a strong taste and essential nutrients.
    • Top chicken spinach salad or grilled chicken sandwich with sliced pineapple.
    • Toss fresh pineapple chunks into yogurt and have it in the morning.
    • Puree frozen pineapple to make a fruit smoothie.
    • Place big chunks on kebabs made of veggies or meat.
    • Add diced fruit to a salad.
    • Fresh slices on the grill make a healthy summer dessert.
    • Chop pineapple to make salsa.

    A Few Recipes:

    1. Pineapple Popsicles

    • 1 fresh pineapple, peeled and chopped
    • Almond or coconut milk – 1 cup
    • Honey – 1 tablespoon
  • Freeze the freshly sliced pineapple chunks overnight.
  • Add frozen pineapple, milk and honey to a blender and blend it until you see a smooth and thick consistency.
  • Pour the pineapple mixture into popsicle molds and freeze overnight, until they turn solid.
  • Run the bottom of the molds in warm water to get pineapple popsicles.
  • 2. Pineapple Mango Smoothie:

    • Pineapple – 1 cup, chopped along with core
    • Mangoes – 1 cup, chopped
    • Orange juice – 1 cup
    • Vanilla yogurt – ВЅ cup
    • Ice
  • Blend pineapple, mangoes, orange juice and yogurt together.
  • Add some ice and blend again until you get a smooth consistency.
  • You can also add bananas, shredded coconut or any other fruit of your choice.
  • Do check with your doctor to get the best advice on pineapple consumption during pregnancy.

    Did you have pineapple during pregnancy and burst the myths? Let us know.

    Red Blood Cell Count – RBC (Whole Blood) During Pregnancy

    What is a Red Blood Cell Count?

    The red blood cell count is part of the complete blood count blood test ordered as a diagnostic and/or reference test. Red blood cell is often referred to as RBC and complete blood count as CBC. CBC is one of the most common blood tests because doctors use the results to gauge overall health, target areas of concern and diagnose diseases and conditions. The RBC gives doctors the total red blood cell count present in the provided blood sample – a good indicator of total RBC count in the body.

    • Negative Pregnancy Adult: 4 to 5.2X106/mm3X106/µl or 4 to 5.2X1012/L
    • Pregnancy Trimester One: 3.42 to 4.55X106/mm3X106/µl or 3.42 to 4.55X1012/L
    • Pregnancy Trimester Two: 2.81 to 4.49X106/mm3X106/µl or 2.81 to 4.49X1012/L
    • Pregnancy Trimester Three: 2.72 to 4.43X106/mm3X106/µl or 2.72 to 4.43X1012/L

    The total number of red blood cells can be an indicator of one of more problems, including reduced production and/or early death. If the doctor ordering the CBC suspects there is an underlying problem with red blood cell numbers, additional tests such as an iron profile, blood smear or vitamin B12 testing may be ordered in conjunction with the CBC.

    Red blood cells in the urine during pregnancy: rate, causes

    Before each visit to the doctor pregnant pass laboratory tests. Select the red blood cells in the urine during pregnancy is normal. However, increased values in the mean results in malfunctions of the organism, that poses a serious threat to the child. Red blood cells in the urine occur as a result of disease or physiological features. For reliable results it is necessary to observe the rules of collection of material for a urine test.

    Red blood cells in the urine during pregnancy: norm

    Leukocytes and erythrocytes are excreted with the urine from each individual. Consequently, their normal performance in the field of the microscope: for men 3-5, women to 1. The norm for a pregnant woman the same. In the case where another laboratory testing revealed an increased number of red blood cells, the doctor prescribes a re-analysis using the catheter. If in this case, the analysis showed the level 5 and above, diagnosed with «gross hematuria», then additional research is underway to identify the root causes. The value of erythrocytes from 1 to 5 in the urine of the pregnant woman is called «microhematuria».

    What are the reasons?

    The appearance in the urine of red blood cells during pregnancy — a reason for careful inspection of the health of the expectant mother. Laboratory analysis of urine allows us to understand the kinds of hematuria: true or false. In the case of hematuria in a pregnant first type erythrocytes appear in the urine after passing through the kidneys. Another reason of true hematuria is constantly and rapidly growing uterus. In these cases, do not worry. Elevated red blood cells in the urine during pregnancy when about of hematuria be the result of:

    • find sand or stones in the kidneys (getting to the exit particles hurt and injure tissue)
    • beginning uterine bleeding (color of urine, thus, remains the same);
    • erosion of the cervix (the endometrium will relax and produce blood cells);
    • inflammation;
    • kidney disease (cystitis, glomerulonephritis);
    • cancer.

    Steps to determining root cause

    To identify the root cause of the increase in the number of red blood cells in urine during pregnancy will help additional analysis and study. First of all, the gynecologist examine a woman on the gynecological chair with the help of mirrors. This way you can diagnose a cervical erosion. The following additional research will be colposcopy — examination using a special microscope, the images which are broadcasted on the computer screen. It is possible to take pictures of the uterus for further observation.

    Pregnant women will also take material for cytograms and conduct a bacteriological culture of urine and mucous balloon of the uterus. If you suspect a child in danger will conduct the ultrasound, which does not take harm during pregnancy. In addition, information is obtained from repeated studies of blood and urine. Why it is necessary to conduct so many tests? Protein and red blood cells during pregnancy are a serious threat to the life and health of the child. To prevent complications and needed for many diagnostic procedures.

    There are times when after all the additional research of the failures in the system, but RBCs are still present in the analysis. In this case, the reasons can be the higher air temperature on the street or in the room where the pregnant woman spends a lot of time. Enhanced physical exercise, meals with spices and alcohol, and stress can cause red blood cells in the urine.

    Rules of urine collection for analysis

    Urine analysis is significantly affected by how it was collected. For the most truthful data, you must follow the rules of collection of the investigated material. First of all, the analysis is carried out on morning urine. Before you begin gathering necessary to wash the vulva. Next, use a cotton swab to close the entrance to the vagina. This is done in order to avoid getting substances out of it. The process of collection is as follows: the first portion of urine (10 ml) is poured, medium is collected and again poured last. The collection of material for analysis is produced in a special container that you buy at the pharmacy. Also important is the time between collection and the start of the study. The norm is 1 hour. This period of time (prior to analysis) a container of material should be in a cool place. The implementation of the rules collection is to ensure correct performance.

    The importance of urine analysis

    The health of expectant mothers means a lot to them and for the child. Any disease pregnant can cause serious abnormalities in the fetus. With the purpose of timely prevention and detection of diseases is necessary to conduct regular laboratory testing of urine. The presence of protein and red blood cells in a result, doctors have more details to observe pregnant and spend the number of additional diagnostic procedures. In addition, a pathology can flow and develop without symptoms. Tests able to identify and resolve at an early stage. Otherwise, there is a likelihood of miscarriage or developmental abnormalities of the fetus. So important is strict adherence and implementation of all recommendations of the doctor.

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