Anti kell antibodies my blood pregnancy

Image Gallery: Anti- Kell

Kell blood group system


Obviously HDN is usually RH, but second most common is anti-Kell .

Kell blood group system

Fatal erythroblastosis fetalis due to anti-Kell isoimmune disease

Kell blood group system

Fetal Haemolytic Disease. Maternal antibodies develop against .

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Kell blood group system

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Search results for "Hemolysis"

Kell blood group system

anti-KEL antibody (AA 214-243, Center) | Product No. ABIN658795

Heme conf 10 08-2015 – dr cho

Mast Group Ltd. Providing high quality diagnostic products to .

Schematic diagram of the Kell–XK protein complex. Kell. – Figure .

Rabbit anti-Human XKRX antibody (ABIN1537121)

Kell System – Springer

anti-KEL antibody (AA 633-732, partial) | Product No. ABIN517324

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Anti- Kell – Related Image & Keywords Suggestions

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Keyword Expressions

List of the most popular expressions with the word ‘Anti- Kell ‘

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Top SEO News, 2017

Google will keep in secret the number of search quality algorithms

How many search quality algorithms does Google use? This question was put to the John Mueller, the company’s employee during the last video conference with webmasters.

The question was:

“When you mention Google’s quality algorithm, how many algorithms do you use?”

Mueller responded the following:

“Usually we do not talk about how many algorithms we use. We publicly state that we have 200 factors when it comes to scanning, indexing and ranking.

Generally, the number of algorithms is a casual number. For instance, one algorithm can be used to display a letter on the search results page. Therefore, we believe that counting the exact number of algorithms that Google uses is not something that is really useful [for optimizers].

From this point of view, I can’t tell you how many algorithms are involved in Google search.”

Gary Illyes shares his point of view on how important referential audit is

At the Brighton SEO event that took place last week, Google rep called Gary Illyes shared his opinion about the importance of auditing the website’s link profile. This information was reported by Jennifer Slagg in the TheSEMPost blog.

Since Google Penguin was modified into real-time update and started ignoring spam links instead of imposing sanctions on websites, this has led to a decrease of the value of auditing external links.

According to Gary Illyes, auditing of links is not necessary for all websites at the present moment.

“I talked to a lot of SEO specialists from big enterprises about their business and their answers differed. These companies have different opinions on the reason why they reject links.

I don’t think that helding too many audits makes sense, because, as you noted, we successfully ignore the links, and if we see that the links are of an organic nature, it is highly unlikely that we will apply manual sanctions to a website.

In case your links are ignored by the “Penguin”, there is nothing to worry about.

I’ve got my own website, which receives about 100,000 visits a week. I have it for 4 years already and I do not have a file named Disavow. I do not even know who is referring to me.

Thus, in the case when before a website owner was engaged in buying links or using other prohibited methods of link building, then conducting an audit of the reference profile and rejecting unnatural links is necessary in order to avoid future manual sanctions. It is important to remember that rejecting links can lead to a decrease in resource positions in the global search results, since many webmasters often reject links that actually help the website, rather than doing any harm to it.

Therefore, referential audits are needed if there were any violations in the history of the resource. They are not necessary for many website owners and it is better to spend this time on improving the website itself, says Slagg.

Googlebot still refuses to scan HTTP/2

During the last video conference with webmasters Google rep called John Mueller said that Googlebot still refrains to scan HTTP.

The reason is that the crawler already scans the content that fast, so the benefits that the browser receives (web pages loading time is decreased) are not that important.

“No, at the moment we do not scan HTTP / 2. We are still investigating what we can do about it. In general, the difficult part is that Googlebot is not a browser, so it does not get the same speed effects that are observed within a browser when implementing HTTP / 2. We can cache data and make requests in a different way than a regular browser. Therefore, we do not see the full benefits of scanning HTTP / 2.

But with more websites implementing push notification feature, Googlebot developers are on the point of adding support for HTTP in future.”

It should be recalled that in April 2016, John Mueller said that the use of the HTTP / 2 protocol on the website does not directly affect the ranking in Google, but it improves the experience of users due to faster loading speed of the pages. Therefore, if you have a change, it is recommended to move to this protocol.

Google does not check all spam reports in manual mode

Google employee named John Mueller stated that the search team does not check all spam reports manually during the last video conference with webmasters.

The question to Mueller was the following:

“Some time ago we sent a report on a spam, but still have not seen any changes. Do you check each and every report manually?”

No, we do not check all spam reports manually. “

Later Mueller added:

“We are trying to determine which reports about spam have the greatest impact, it is on them that we focus our attention and it is their anti-spam team that checks manually, processes and, if necessary, applies manual sanctions. Most of the other reports that come to us is just information that we collect and can use to improve our algorithms in the future. At the same time, he noted that small reports about violations of one page scale are less prioritized for Google. But when this information can be applied to a number of pages, these reports become more valuable and are prior to be checked.

As for the report processing time, it takes some considerable time. As Mueller explained, taking measures may take “some time”, but not a day or two.

It should be recalled that in 2016, Google received about 35 thousand messages about spam from users every month. About 65% of all the reports led to manual sanctions.

Google: 503 status code should not be applied for weeks

Google’s spokesman John Mueller said that the server’s 503 response code should be used within a few hours, but not weeks.

503 error means that the server is temporarily unable to process requests for technical reasons (this may be a maintenance, overload, etc.). This is a good method to help Google understand that the website will be unavailable for a limited period of time.

However, it is not recommended to use it for longer than a few hours. According to Mueller, “weeks” does not mean temporary. He also added that the webmasters are misleading Google in this case.

If it’s not accessible for weeks, it would be misleading to include it in search, imo. It’s an error page, essentially.

– John ☆ .o (в–Ѕ ≦ ≦) o. ☆ (@JohnMu) June 8, 2017

We should remind you that John Mueller previously told how not to lose the position in the search engine, if there is a need to temporarily suspend the website (for a day or more) either due to technical maintenance or for other reasons.

Google Image Search loses market share to Amazon and Facebook

The share of Google in the search market grew from 58.84% in October last year to 64.8% in March 2017. At the same time, the share of Google Image Search fell to 21.8% in favor of Amazon and Facebook. This information has come from analysts of the American company Jumpshot in partnership with co-founder Moz Rand Fishkin.

During the research, they analyzed search data in Google Search, Images, Maps, YouTube, Yahoo, Bing, Amazon, Facebook, Reddit and Wikipedia for the period from October 2016 to May 2017 with a sole purpose to determine the resources that accounted for the largest number of search engines Sessions and traffic.

Generally, at this period Amazon’s share went up from 0.4% to 2.30%, and Facebook’s 0.8% to 1.5%. Bing and Yahoo both showed growth of up to 2.4%, while Google Maps was ranked up to 1.2%. The activity of Google Search, Bing, Amazon and Facebook showed growth, while Google Images, YouTube, Yahoo and Google Maps lost their positions.

The report also included data on search volumes and CTR in the US. The number of search sessions in Google has exceeded 30 billion a month (as of October 2016). By May 2017, the growth trend remained at the level of 10-15% compared to the previous year.

The results of the organic search in 2016 went down to the bottom. In December they were ranked at 54% (despite the fact that in January and February of the same year their level was at 57% and 56%, respectively, and taking into account the traditional activity stop after the winter holidays).

November 2016 gave the highest rates of search activity without clicks and was ranked at 45.5%. At the same time, the lowest indicator was in October, which is only 40.3%.

According to Jumpshot, the largest traffic is generated by Google: about 63% in May 2017, with about 60% in October 2016. During this period, YouTube also showed better results and went up by 0.2%, while Amazon rose by 0.1%. Traffic from Facebook, Yahoo, Reddit, Imgur and Bing almost died, and that’s only Wikipedia that remained at the same level.

Google is speeding up the mobile pages in the ranking

Google is changing its approach to assessing the speed of page loading. In the near future, the ranking will take into account the speed of mobile pages and not desktop. This was reported by the Goole search representative Gary Illyes at the SMX Advanced 2017 conference.

As you know, at the moment Google measures only the loading speed of the desktop pages. These data are used both in desktop ranking and mobile.

However, mobile speed is more important for Google. Therefore, it was decided to make changes to the search algorithm. This approach is already under consideration.

Illyes also stressed upon the fact that Google will actively inform webmasters about any changes before launching the mobile-first index. So not to make a surprise for specialists.

Earlier it was reported that Google has not been planning to take into account the downloading speed for mobile pages in the ranking.

Google tests a new search results format with ready-made answers

English-speaking users noticed that Google is testing a new format for the search results that would include ready answers.

From now on the website, the content of which was used to generate a response will no longer be displayed in the search results. The reference to it is contained only in the block with the answer.

“Google removed the result from the search on the page that was already shown in the block with the answer for this query. Now the block with the answer is the only result for the page on a specific request, “says The SEM Post blog

It is noted that the new feature is currently available for many users, but not all of them. This can mean a large-scale testing or a gradual launch.

Cyber attack that took place on May 12 affected 200,000 users from 150 countries

The victims of the mass cyberattack that occurred on May 12 were 200 thousand users from 150 countries. This information was stated by the press-secretary of the European police department (Europol) Jen Ohn Jen Hurt.

According to him, there are many affected companies, including large corporations. He also noted that the cyber attack may continue on May 15, when people come to work and turn on their computers.

The virus, called WannaCry blocks access to files and requires affected users to pay $ 300 ransom in bitcoins. Unless the price is paid in three days, hackers threaten to double this amount, and after 7 they remove all files from the computer.

The first reports of cyber attacks appeared in the media and social networks on Friday, May 12. According to Europol, the malware was launched from the National Health Service of England. Then it affected networks in other countries. The virus infected computer networks of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Megafon and other organizations in Russia.

Proofpoint specialist Darien Hass and author of the MalwareTech blog managed to stop the spread of the virus using code to access a meaningless domain on May 13. However, the WannaCry creators released a new version of the virus, which no longer refers to this domain name.

It is noted in Europol that the motivation of hackers is not fully understood. Typically, this type of attack is revenue-oriented. However, in this case, the amount of the repurchase is small. According to the ministry, only a few companies and individuals agreed to pay $ 300 to attackers, following the recommendations of law enforcement agencies. According to The Guardian, the accounts of the creators of the extortion virus received $ 42,000 from approximately 100 people.

The intruders have not been revealed yet.

How Google processes pages with the Canonical and noindex attributes

During the last video conference with webmasters, John Mueller answered the interesting question: how does the search engine process pages that both contain the Canonical and Noindex attribute?

The question to Mueller was:

“I once was at a seminar where I was told that if you use rel = canonical and Noindex on a page, then Canonical will transmit the Noindex canonicalized page. Is that true?”.

“Hmm. I don’t know. We discussed this issue for a long time, at least inside the team. In particular, what should we do in this case.

Using Canonical, you are telling that two pages should be processes identically. Noindex reports that the page that contains it must be removed from the search. Therefore theoretically our algorithms can get confused and decide that you need to delete both pages. Correct? Or they can process them in different ways, taking into account Noindex attribute.

As a matter of actual practice, it is most likely that algorithms will decide that the rel = canonical attribute was added by mistake.”

Other antibodies in pregnancy

Anti-Kell antibodies causing HDFN

The reason why this is not as common as anti-D is because the Kell group of antigens is present in only a small proportion of the population. Only 2% of black people and 9% of white people have blood cells with the antigen. The law of averages mean even if a woman has anti-Kell antibodies, her partner is most likely not to have the antigen that would trigger the reaction in the baby. Remember, the baby has got to inherit the target antigen for the reaction to occur. When paternity is certain, the father can be tested for Kell antigen. Most will be negative. If the father is Kell negative, the four weekly blood tests are not necessary and the mother can have her routine antibody test at 28 weeks like everybody else. For this strategy to be adopted there has got to be no doubt at all about paternity.

The management of pregnancies with anti-Kell antibodies differs significantly from those with other types of antibodies. This is because the serial estimation of antibodies titres is not a reliable indicator of severity of the disease. Of late, Döppler ultrasound of the baby’s brain to monitor blood flow in the middle cerebral artery has been found to be a reliable indicator of fetal anaemia and can help facilitate decision on intrauterine transfusion or timing of delivery.

The use of Middle cerebral artery (MCA) Döppler ultrasound is based on the fact that destruction of the baby’s blood cells (haemolysis) causes anaemia for the fetus. This, in turn, causes the blood volume and velocity to increase as compensatory measures. The increase in the blood flow will be accurately reflected using MCA Döppler ultrasound

Anti-c and anti-E antibodies causing HDFN

Because 4 out of 5 men (80%) carry the ‘c’ antigen on their blood cells, if a woman is found to have anti-c antibodies, there is a high probability that her partner will have the target antigen and therefore the baby too. It is therefore imperative that the standard close surveillance is maintained with 4 weekly blood tests to estimate the antibody titres until 28 weeks and then fortnightly thereafter. Up to 1 in 5 of babies whose mother are found to have anti-c antibodies require exchange transfusion.

Anti-E is not as common as anti-c but in about 10% of affected pregnancies it causes severe haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn requiring intrauterine transfusion, early delivery and/or exchange transfusion. Anti-c and anti-E have a tendency to occur together. 40% of those with anti-c antibodies also have anti-E.

Duffy antigen system

The ‘Duffy’ antigen system is made up of two antibodies called Fy a and Fy b. It is not common and severe haemolytic disease due to anti-Fya or anti-Fyb antibodies is quite uncommon. The monitoring described with the other antibodies above is nonetheless necessary once the antibodies have been detected.

Kidd antigen system

The Kidd antigen system consists of two antigens, namely, Jk a and Jk b. Only a handful of women have been found to carry this anti-Jka and anti-Jkb antibodies. Though the haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) caused by these antibodies is usually mild, a handful of severe cases have been reported. Diligent surveillance is therefore required with this as with other antibody types.

Identifying fetus at risk of HDFN

Technology has advanced to a stage where many of the most important causes of HDFN can be investigated and identified using non-invasive techniques.

As stated earlier, the presence of antibodies in maternal blood only indicate that the fetus might be at risk. A fetus that does not carry the target antigen will not be at risk. The trick is therefore to identify those fetuses where the presence of antibodies is a harbinger of possible trouble in the form of HDFN. The use of invasive procedures such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) carries with it a risk of provoking miscarriage and therefore obstetricians have traditionally shied away from using these for cases of maternal antibodies. Now, it is possible to isolate cell-free fetal DNA from maternal blood from around 16 -20 weeks of gestation. If the mother had been found to have anti-D, anti-c, anti-E or anti-Kell antibodies, it is possible to accurately establish whether the fetus has the relevant target antigen in around 96% of cases. In those cases where the fetus is found not to have the target antigen, the close surveillance described above is not necessary and she can be reassured and continue with low risk antenatal care. For those babies found to have the relevant target antigen, the close surveillance to ensure their continued wellbeing and to intervene timely if and when required is maintained.

Fetal blood sampling

When there is suspected or confirmed haemolytic disease of the fetus, it may be necessary to accurately estimate the degree of fetal anemia. One way of doing this is by getting a fetal blood sample usually obtained from the site of the cord insertion under ultrasound guidance. This procedure can be difficult especially in the second trimester but even in uncomplicated cases, fetal loss as a direct result of the procedure is around 1 – 3%.

Delivery and its timing

Many of the severely affected fetuses will require repeated intrauterine transfusion. At around 26 weeks, the mother is given a two injection course of steroids (betamethasone or dexamethasone) in anticipation of possible pre-term delivery. A substantial proportion of these babies are delivered pre-term. Sometimes complications occur in the course of transfusing the fetus and an immediate emergency caesarean section becomes necessary. If the condition remains stable, induction of labour or delivery by caesarean section is planned for around 37 – 38 weeks.

Anti kell antibodies my blood pregnancy

Sharing information today to save the lives of tomorrow.

Finding out you have antibodies is a scary thing, but it doesn’t have to be! Armed with the right knowledge, you can be informed about your baby’s condition, and be a partner in your baby’s health. If you’re pregnant, pop on over to the Pregnancy page. If you’re getting close to birth, check out the Birth page for more info on what needs to be done around birth. No matter where you are on your Iso journey, there’s always Things to Think About. There’s also some Info that’s helpful to everyone. Whenever you see a number in parenthesis (1), it’s a reference number. You can look this number up on the References page and see the exact medical article the information was sourced from.

What is Isoimmunization (Iso)?

Isoimmunization (also called alloimmunization), occurs when a woman’s immune system is sensitized to foreign blood cell antigens. This causes the woman to make antibodies that cross the placenta and destroy baby’s blood cells (1).

During pregnancy, some of the mother’s antibodies are transported across the placenta and enter the fetal circulation. This is necessary because newborns have only a primitive immune system, and the presence of maternal antibodies helps them survive while their immune system matures. A downside to this protection is that by targeting fetal blood cells, maternal antibodies can also cause HDN (2). Blood production in the fetus begins at about 3 weeks, and the baby’s blood cells can have antigens on the red cell membrane as early as 38 days after conception (4).

Antibody? Antigen? What’s my body doing again?

Antigen – foreign protein on red blood cells of dad or baby

Antibody – made by mom to defend her body from the antigen

Antigens are foreign. Antibodies defend the body.

Dad makes the E antigen and passes it to baby. When baby’s blood and mom’s blood mix, mom’s blood finds the foreign antigen and makes antibodies to defend her body. This is called sensitization. The antibodies then find the foreign cells and destroy them in a process called hemolysis (hemo = cell, lysis = death). The next time mom’s sensitized body finds the E antigen, her antibodies are primed and ready to attack the foreign cells. So when mom has baby #2, who has dad’s E antigen, her antibodies cross the placenta and attack the baby’s blood.

How did I become sensitized?

The most common ways maternal sensitization occurs are (1):

Chorionic villus sampling

Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling

External cephalic version (trying to turn a breech baby)

Manual removal of the placenta (instead of spontaneous delivery of the placenta)

Why is Iso dangerous?

Isoimmunization is dangerous because the antibodies can cross the placenta during pregnancy and if the fetus is positive for the specific antigens, the fetal red blood cells are destroyed. This can result in anemia, hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN), fetal hydrops (sometimes fatal), and more (1).

If you are sensitized, it is NOT a death sentence for your baby, and it does not mean you cannot have additional children. Advancements in fetal surveillance and treatment allow for successful outcomes for most of the affected fetuses. For the Rh D- woman, the drug Rhogam has reduced the risk of sensitization to less than 1% of susceptible pregnancies. Because of this other alloantibodies have increased in relative importance. These include antibodies to other antigens of the Rh blood group system (ie, c, C, e, E) and other atypical antibodies known to cause severe anemia, such as anti-Kell (ie, K, k), anti-Duffy (ie, Fya), and anti-Kidd (ie, Jka, Jkb) (1).

How do I know if I have an antibody?

There is only one way to know if you have an antibody, you have to get tested. Routine antibody screening is done in the US on all pregnancies (unless refused) as part of the basic prenatal blood work.

What do I do? Where do I start?

Start by keeping a binder or folder. Use this to write down all your questions (and the doctor’s answers). No question is silly. It is important that you are informed and able to actively participate in your care and advocate for your baby. Ask for copies of all your test results and keep them in your folder. Don’t forget to get a copy of each ultrasound report and MCA scan (complete with all the PSV values, not just the highest or lowest). This way you can see how things are changing and how baby is doing. This is also helpful if you have to have multiple doctors. Sometimes things don’t always get passed along between offices, so it is very important to have your own record. It is also a great place to put keepsakes such as ultrasound photos, bracelets, etc. Consider having someone come with you to tests and appointments for support or to drive you home after procedures. The printables on the Info page are a great place to get started with things to put in your folder.

You also need to get a medical alert card for your wallet or a medical alert bracelet. Mine says “Transfusion Alert: Anti-E”. This is important even after you’re not pregnant. If you are ever in an accident or unconscious and need blood, you do not want to have a life threatening transfusion reaction. Some blood banks, hospitals, or doctor’s offices will provide them for you. There are also multiple places online where you can order a bracelet, or in the pharmacy section of our local Meijer, there is a USB medical alert card that you can put your entire medical record, not just your antibody status. Some cell phones have an In Case of Emergency or ICE section where you can write your antibody status and include emergency contact information for your MFM too. I’ve attached a printable medical alert card here , and there’s one on the Info page.

Anti kell antibodies my blood pregnancy

I have a pregnant patient with anti-Kell antibodies (titer is 1:4). What are the recommendations for managing patients with anti Kell antibodies?

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends determination of the father’s red blood cell antigen status as the first step. To determine the father’s Kell antigen status most laboratories will ask that you submit 5 mL of the father’s blood drawn into a Lavender-top (EDTA) tube with a request to perform Red Blood Cell Antigen Typing, Kell antigen, Kell blood group phenotype on the father’s blood.

The peak systolic velocity is measured in the MCA closest to the transducer when the fetus is not active or breathing. The Doppler gate is placed in the center of the MCA immediately above the Circle of Willis with the ultrasound beam aligned to the direction of blood flow (angle of insonation of zero degrees). As a fetus develops anemia the velocity of the blood flow through the fetal MCA will be expected to increase due to the decreased viscosity of the fetal blood and increased fetal cardiac output. Patients with a MCA PSV of greater than 1.5 times the median have a high risk for having a severely anemic fetus [5-7] and should be referred for possible percutaneous umbilical blood sampling to determine whether the fetus needs to receive a transfusion.

1.McKenna DS, et al. Management of pregnancies complicated by anti-Kell isoimmunization. Obstet Gynecol 1999;93:667–73. PMID:10912964

2. Hackney DN, et al., Management of pregnancies complicated by anti-c isoimmunization. Obstet Gynecol 2004;103:24–30. PMID:14704240

3. van Dongen H, et al., Non-invasive tests predict fetal anemia in Kell-alloimmunized pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005;25:341 PMID:15736218

4. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ACOG Practice Bulletin 75: Management of alloimmunization during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 ;108:457-64. PMID:16880320

5. Mari G, et al. Diagnosis of fetal anemia with Doppler ultrasound in the pregnancy complicated by maternal blood group immunization. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1995;5:400-405. PMID:7552802

6. Mari G, et al. Collaborative Group for Doppler Assessment of the Blood Velocity in Anemic Fetuses. Fetal blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery in the anemic fetus. N Engl J Med 2000;342:9-14. PMID:10620643

7. Scheier M, et al. Prediction of fetal anemia in rhesus disease by measurement of fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2004;23:432-436. PMID:15133790

Copyright © 2009 by Focus Information Technology.

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